Learning approach is based on a distinction between a pedagogical, an androgogical and anthropogogical form of teaching.
The three approaches of teaching can be distinguished by their different perceptions of the relations between subject matter, teacher and student.
The pedagogical approach is based on L. Wittgenstein's idea that the teacher is the expert within a language game and that teaching is to be seen as the teacher's communication of expert knowledge to the student. Learning is the student's acquisition of this knowledge. Prior to the classroom teaching, the teacher defines clear learning objectives and chooses the subject matter that is to be worked with in the classroom. The subject matter is selected so that it distributes the quantity of information that the teacher believes is relevant to the student in relation to the given topic. The teacher and the subject are in the center and not the student.
After teaching, the teacher will be able to compare the student's learning outcomes with the learning objectives that the teacher defined before the teaching begun. The student's learning outcome can be tested through closed tasks and tests.
The androgogical approach of teaching is based on J. Dewey's idea that student has an inherent basis of knowledge that can be developed through interaction with the outside world and solving problems. Learning is seen as the student's development of this inherent basis of knowledge. The teacher chooses a subject matter, which could make it possible for the student to experience what is relevant and to define and solve authentic problems. In the learning situation, the student chooses to work with the parts of the subject matter that he or she finds relevant and then uses this part of the subject matter as a basis for solving problem. The student's learning outcome can be tested through case assignments and simulations, where the student can show that he or she can use gained experience within different context.
Nir Golan, an educational and leadership expert, suggests combining the terms Pedagogy (child learning) and Androgogy (male / adult learning), into one term, Anthropogogy: to mean human learning.
The Anthropogogy approach assumes that the distinction between children and adults is no longer relevant in the digital age and that each student should be treated as a 'whole' person irrespective of their age.
According to Golan, Anthropogogy has five basic principles:
1. The independent learner:
A person sees him/herself as someone who is self-directed; choosing what to learn, how much and how to learn it as an independent entity. Digital learners (DL) prefer to access information quickly from multiple-media source: prefer processing pictures, sounds, colors and video before text.
2. Adapting learning to that person's needs:
The person is ready to learn when he/she needs that specific learning process, and it is incorporated into daily tasks and social functioning. He/she sees that the learning process serves his/her personal development. DLs prefer parallel processing and multitasking and to learn "just in time".
3. Renovating learning:
In the digital age where there is widespread availability of network information, learning should give news and added value to the learner. DLs prefer to network simultaneously with others and random access to hyper-linked multimedia information
4. Immediate and practical learning:
The main motive for human learning is for problem solving. The learner has a need for the immediate application of the learned material, so learning has to be more focused in giving solutions to the particular problem. Learning which cannot be implemented immediately is perceived as a waste of time. DLs prefer instant gratification and immediate rewards.
5. Learning in Community:
The basic need of a person today is belonging to "something bigger than me". Learning in community fulfills this need. Learning community convenes regularly and frequently during the workday to engage in collaborative professional learning to strengthen practices and increase results. Learning community members are accountable to one another to achieve the shared goals of the organization and work in transparent, authentic settings that support their improvement.
The anthropogogical approach of teaching is based on K. E. Løgstrup's idea that knowledge is created thought an equal exchange of many different individual's perception of the world. The Danish theologian-philosopher K. E. Løgstrup is second in reputation in his homeland only to Søren Kierkegaard. K. E. Løgstrup presents his theory of using phenomenology in understanding our ethical decisions. According to Løgstrup, phenomenology not only provides an understanding of human existence but also of ethics, through examination of the phenomena of ethical concepts. Learning is the student's participation in this exchange. The teacher and student jointly select the subject matter that is to be worked with in the classroom, according to the student's needs. They are equal in this process, just as they are in their efforts to the stages of the anthropological significant learning model, and produce common knowledge within the field.
Society has created these anthropogogical learners. When they discover something they like, they are excited to share it with their friends using digital devices and social media tools. This is how they want their educational experience to be. Anthropogogical learners want to learn collaboratively in community and to apply what they have learned through creative path-way. They prefer learning on their own time and on their own terms and want to be involved in real-life issues that matter to them. Educators need to think about their own behaviors in the anthropogogy age and work to apply them for the betterment of learners of all ages.
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